#1141 Learning Links

As a young student I didn’t sit still very well. I got distracted sometimes. I loved what I liked and grudgingly did other work. Sometimes I sunk energy into subjects others thought I would be good for me… that never went well. I started to blossom when I allowed myself to pursue and enjoy what I loved.

This realization helped ignite my interest in education, and more broadly, working with youth to help them find their way and excel. I started reading, writing and learning.

Below are some recent resources I’ve enjoyed and that help me shape my next steps:

• Some of my toughest and most rewarding days are working with children who test our limits as teachers. I cannot believe these children are behaving as they do for fun. Their (often traumatic) circumstances shapes their spikey behaviours. Rob Miller describes “hugging the porcupine.”

math alternatives

Image Driven Math

• I spent a day last week learning about math strategies including our education ministry’s renewed math strategy.
I was happy to hear some of the strategies that included “image driven math,” math sites like  Which One Doesn’t Belong and Fermi’s open ended questions.
These sites get students’ brains and classes working differently. One of the presenters urged us to take math class outside. I smiled at that suggestion. I probably would have done better at university level calculus if we could play with practical applications outside the classroom…

• I don’t sit still very well. Active learning – ie being active while learning math / language, etc. helps me learn and smile. I am seeing more bike desks in classes to help students that need to move. Being outside and being active engage and retain students and their learning. Bill Murphy Jr. writes about the need for many to be active when learning.

Keep reading and learning. Please share your favourite links, below.

#1140 Losing Recess

A friend was upset recently that his elementary-aged student lost recess time for minor misdemeanors in the classroom.  He was upset. I would be, too. Why do kids lose recess? It’s complicated…

Children need time to play, run and explore in unstructured ways. Often, that means recess.

If the child is like me, sitting still in rows and quietly learning, is purgatory. Moving, exploring and learning through experiences is how I learn best. Taking some of that away – even just one recess – creates more stresses than successes. Thankfully classrooms and schools are changing from past norms.

Schools from the past often placed students quietly in rows where they were supposed to diligently do their work, quietly. Some suggest ‘modern’ school was an industrial idea to prepare workers for factories.

Luckily this thinking is changing.

I still hear of instances of active children who are denied recess for misbehaviours. In my mind, ‘busy’ children should receive double recess for misdemeanors. Disallowing active free play can escalate challenges.

Reducing Misbehaviours
I currently teach a little bit of Forest School. What draws me to their learner led philosophy? Students lead the learning. Kids are engaged and active because they follow their passions. Teachers build the curriculum around the student interest. Consequently, there are very few mis-behaviours to manage.

learner led learning

Following student interests keeps them focused on learning.

What’s going on with some kids in traditional schools?
I teach mostly in traditional classrooms. Misbehaviours happen. Recently, I sat beside a boy who had consumed much of my attention as I got the class going. He squirmed and disrupted those around him. I looked at him. “You’re bored aren’t you?” He looked at the floor and nodded his head. Instead of threatening a consequence – like taking his recess – I asked what he wanted to do. We worked a way to combine his interests with curriculum elements. Happily for all, his behaviour improved.

Why teachers take away recess.
Teachers threaten students with losing recess, I believe, because they’re often strapped for time, energy and need a quick way to keep a student in line. Although it’s short-sighted, some teachers have their limits and, despite best intentions, resort to recess loss as a way to keep the class moving forward. Without an outlet or release, the student’s behaviours can escalate and create more challenges.

What others say about recess and taking away recess:
The Atlantic offers discipline research, suggestions and alternatives to taking away recess:

Education Weekly suggests the practice of taking away recess is declining and offers support for recess.

The Huffington Post cites findings on the subject from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Two alternatives to losing recess:
1. Differentiate.
This is education lingo for meeting all students where they are. It means keeping all students interested in learning whether they are at grade level, or way behind or way ahead. Keeping all students interested will help reduce unwanted behaviours. It’s the ideal in classrooms.

However, differentiation takes planning, insight, resources (time and $) and experience.

It also means teachers need to account for students who are chronically hungry or have a stomach ache or who live with a single parent who struggles to make ends meet. Sometimes the behaviours stem from stresses or traumas beyond the context of school. Some students never develop the basic social skills to get along in a school environment.

I have seen classes where one student can consistently derail an otherwise well functioning learning environment. Sometimes, that student has little support at home and may only be operating at the lowest tier of Maslow’s hierarchy. It’s hard to be ready for learning if you’re worried about food or shelter or safety. Which brings me to alternative 2 to losing recess.


Keeping students learning means keeping them interested like in this learning environment.

2. More support.
And I mean more support on many levels such as:
Support in the class for students that need it. A good educational assistant is worth their weight in gold. Smaller class sizes help.
Support for families that are struggling. This could mean support for families that do not have the basics of food and shelter… or families that have developed poor coping skills for life’s ills. Support could be for families struggling with loss, mental or physical health challenges, stress.
Support for schools: More teachers, more educational assistants, more people, more time means better student development.

All this support means more big picture $. That’s a big issue that will not always welcome support. However, The CBC documents that money spent on early education / family support goes a long way in saving money down the road.

The NY Times offers research and more research that equates more educational spending benefits society.

The American Prospect suggests that (in the USA) there is a correlation between jails and education: “The lowest-performing schools tend to be in the areas where incarceration rates are the highest.

Would more support for schools and neighbourhoods lead to less need for jails? I think so.

So… taking away recess from misbehaving children?
Think again.

Support schools. Support teaching staff. Support social services. This support will create better lives for all.

#1139 Community

As our municipality votes this weekend I share a letter that was written for social media in response to sometimes heated debates about municipal debt and infrastructure spending.

The essence of this letter was printed in our local paper and was well received by those that value a strong community. Fingers are crossed for a positive outcome for the election and the community.

“Municipal politics, infrastructure and debt are more complex than many suggest.
Municipal governments aim to create strong, safe, vibrant communities with limited resources.

Chelsea infrastructure is financed by residents but also from other sources – higher levels of government that see benefits of developing community infrastructure like community centres and municipal waterworks.

Chelsea community – the village hub.

The Meredith Centre (our new community centre) received funding from higher levels of government. Residents also contribute. The Meredith Centre now hosts Chelsea Forest School, Chelsea Nordiq Ski Club, Unigym gymnastics, family fun nights as well as hockey and beneficial social services. Even if people choose not to use the services offered at the centre it adds to the strength of the community by making Chelsea attractive to the kinds of people who make good neighbours.

The centre village waterworks project helps produce a vibrant centre core village. How? It allows businesses to exist without individually investing in very expensive commercial grade septic systems. It keeps the dense village core clean and safe. The risk of faulty septic fields and polluted wells is lower. A vibrant village attracts desirable businesses for residents and visitors. Remember Gerry and Isobel’s café? They closed. One of the big reasons was they faced very expensive septic solutions. A loved business is gone.

I hear people say “I don’t use the Meredith Centre (or the village core waterworks.) I don’t want to pay for it through my taxes.” Municipal infrastructure benefits us all – directly or indirectly. Those that choose not to directly use these expensive capital investments benefit by being part of a desirable community that attracts people we enjoy living beside.

As some say “I don’t want to use or pay for the Meredith Centre,” you could say “I don’t want to pay for the roads I don’t use,“
“I don’t want to pay for schools because I don’t have children,”
“I don’t want to pay for the TCO bus service – I drive a car.”

All of these services affect everyone in the community. I appreciate that people have roads, schools, bus service, firefighters, police services, options for social services and active play – even if I don’t directly benefit from each service… it makes my community stronger.

I want a council that recognizes and understands the complexities of municipal level politics, infrastructure, finances and the social needs of a diverse community.

We live in a well sought after community. When I moved here in 1996 some people thought I was crazy. Now people tell me how lucky I am to live in Chelsea.

Should we be worried about our Chelsea taxes and the net debt that Chelsea residents are responsible for? We should always be diligent and ask questions of our governments. But compare our municipal debt and taxes to Canadian debt and Ottawa property taxes.

We’re ok… we’re better than ok!

Harry Nowell”

#1138 Public School and Forest School Symbiosis

I wandered past the school’s library recently and noticed a young boy happily consuming dinosaur knowledge (and practicing his literacy skills.)

It was an idyllic picture of traditional learning…  except that he had snuck out of class to do so.

Public School and Forest School
Many know I have been teaching something most of my life and that I currently work as a teacher in a public school board and a Forest School. My passions belong to the development of youth – kinders to Grade 6 – as they develop their foundational elements (see Maslow’s foundational levels) that support academic and/or technical skills… and life.

Which is how I have found myself with a foot in both public school and Forest School.

Public School Love
I love the resources available within public schools including experts, funds, policies, and large quantities of people and students percolating to support as many youth as possible.

Forest School Love
I love the pedagogical ideas behind Forest School – specifically the Emergent Education Theory, or, less grandiosely, learner-led learning (LLL.)

Learner led learning allows students to follow their interests and puts the onus on the teacher to build balanced curriculum around the students’ curiosity.

public school

Learner led learning at Chelsea Forest School.

Bring the two ideas (LLL and Public School) together and you have magic.

Remember the dinosaur-reading boy in the school library?
He exhibited idyllic student behaviours – quiet concentration, independent, engaged learning. His behaviour was vastly different when he was expected to engage in a lesson in which he had little interest! In the library, he chose the learner led approach within a school board.

Managing LLL for the masses is no easy task, though. Answering to the individual desires and needs of millions of youth while addressing the data driven expectations of ministries of education and government benchmarks is no small feat.

But, it is possible.

A first step is recognizing that all people are different, learn at different paces and want to learn different things.

A friend’s son struggled at school. He has dyslexia. His school squeezed him into set avenues of learning and support which went poorly. All that interested him were cars – Volvos, specifically.

His mom planted the seeds for his literacy and math development through car manuals, car magazines, Volvo books. He learned traditional academic skills through his passion for cars. What does he do now? He’s a leading Master Volvo mechanic with a happy, fulfilling life. That’s learner led learning in action.

Forest School

Learner Led Learning at Chelsea Forest School – these students were mesmerized by what they found beside the trail. They were captivated (and learning)!

Within the last couple of years I worked regularly with a tough class in a public school board – they pushed my skills. Every lesson was challenging. I dreaded gym class because there were volatile students who could make the learning environment challenging for all.

One day, I came to gym with the prescribed lesson – protests started. I took a deep breath and turned the tables. “What do you want to do!?”

Students shared their ideas. Quickly, the gym transformed into a hub of four activities that students chose to join as they wished. I took a step back and watched. It didn’t follow the plans and I had to work backwards to see how it fit the prescribed curriculum… but all were engaged, smiling… and learning. It was one of the best learning environments I witnessed with the students. They had helped shape their learning environment.

The learners in these scenarios led their own learning with positive results. Good news for all.

Forward steps!
Ottawa Forest and Nature school launched a program to bring Forest School to the Ottawa Carleton District School Board. Select elementary classrooms were selected to go to Forest School one day a week for six weeks.

The effect? Positive. I asked Karen, a Kindergarten teacher whose class were involved in the Forest School program. One of the benefits she noticed was increased creativity in her classroom.

Chelsea Forest School offers a School Day Program where students spend one day per week at Forest School to complement their traditional school. One observation – students who struggle at traditional school often blossom in the hands-on, learner led environment. Why? They learn in an active, kinesthetic way with a different mindset – students are encouraged to follow their passions.

I’d like to see the collaboration continue between the ideas of Forest School and public schools. The tide is slowly turning as people see the benefits, strengths and collaborative potential of public schools and alternative pedagogical principles like Forest School’s learner led learning.

#1137 Teaching Beyond Surface Behaviours

I had never seen a more out of control environment – total disregard for any authority – it was ‘F— you’ on everything – if a student came into class late and was asked ‘Why are you late?’ it was ‘F— you…’ ”
Jim Sporleder; Past-Principal at Lincoln High School in Walla Walla, Washington; from CBC Ideas show: “All in the Family, Part 2.”

I recently got swallowed up by a CBC ‘Ideas’ discussion, above, challenging the norms of behaviour management in a classroom.

trauma induced behaviour challenges

Behaviour beyond the surface.

The program, CBC’s All in the Family (Part 2) discussed the basis and context of poorly chosen behaviour. In the documentary, the teachers tried something different… they did not impose immediate consequences but instead offered support (and an opportunity) for the young person to release the underlying stresses that caused the behaviours. Results were remarkable.

Low on Options – Bad Choices
In my own teaching and observations, I have seen students making bad choices. Often, students are immediately reprimanded and disciplined based on their surface behaviours. Early on, I was sure there was more going on than what presented itself.

In my first year supply teaching, I taught a Grade 6 class. After recess I learned one of the students had hurled an abandoned bag of dog feces across the playground. Gross. Inappropriate. Alarming.

After students cleaned up and the class settled I quietly took the pooh-throwing boy aside. I gently asked “What happened?” Initially he clammed up. With some quiet support he realized I was not, as expected, about to drop the hammer on him. He talked. I listened. He shared months (years) of angst, scape-goated-ness and fallout from not being listened to. Eventually, he knew what he needed to do and we talked about options and better coping skills.

His excrement launch was more a cry for help than a premeditated act of defiance. He knew what he had done was wrong. But in the heat of the recess moment he was low on options and high on stress.

I quickly learned from experiences like this that calm and supportive actions had a far greater positive impact than traditional discipline.

Trauma and Behaviour
In the CBC ‘Ideas’ program Teri Barila discusses her work with her Children’s Resilience Initiative:
From humble, early studies she found that adverse childhood experiences caused undesirable behaviours in schools. The behaviours came from stresses outside school and were often a result of poor coping skills rather than overt choices.

As my experiences grew I had more successes with challenged students in elementary schools. One winter, a student refused to come in, lying face down in the snow. The principal was called. No one could make him budge… I was asked to wait for the boy to come in… it was cold outside. After more than 20 minutes he showed no signs of coming in. I walked out to the boy and sat down quietly a few feet from him. After much silence, I offered, “It’s hard, isn’t it?

For the first time he looked up. After realizing he was not in trouble (again) he started slowly sharing perceived injustices from classmates and others. I listened and offered support. Slowly, I asked what he thought we should do. We went back to school. I connected with his teacher and the principal. I learned about his background. He had a tough home life, often made poor choices and was in trouble regularly. Over the next few months I was able to connect with the boy and help, slowly.

Executive Function
I was recognizing what John Medina, developmental molecular biologist, describes as an executive function becoming deregulated by long-term trauma: “When you are traumatized over a period of time you begin to understand that the world is out to get you, even though that may not be true… If you hit a dog enough, eventually they will growl at you… Traumatized children have a very fragmented executive function.” (quoted from CBC Ideas show, above.) This means students experiencing significant trauma behave differently – they do not have the coping skills to deal with stresses like many people do.

Research suggests a traumatized child will react poorly to confrontation or traditional attempts at discipline in the class.

High School Turn-Around
Jim Sporleder, Past Principal at Lincoln High in Washington State  suggests a new approach to inappropriate behaviours has a much better outcome. He turned around a tough school through listening and supporting rather than detentions, suspensions and expulsions.

In the CBC piece, Mr. Sporleder states part of the problem is teachers are pressured to meet test scores at the expense of base needs: “… test scores mean everything. ‘I don’t have time for this kid. I’ve got to get test scores up.’ … and yet when we show that we meet their social and emotional needs then we can get the learning… yet our system jumps to the top of the (Maslow) pyramid and leaves the social and emotional needs out.” (quoted from CBC Ideas show, above.)

He recognizes that, when Maslow’s basic needs are not met, students cannot pay attention to the higher needs of traditional school.

The solution?
I’d like to see more flexibility to allow teachers to specialize the learning to each individual. If student’s basic needs are met first, they will have a greater ability to absorb the learning.

While teaching my own elementary class I met a student was hiding his (lack of) literacy skills. He had come from a hard few years at home. When I met him he was falling through the cracks and didn’t want to come to school.

By focusing on his basic needs – emotional safety, belonging and self-esteem through a fun classroom environment – I made sure he enjoyed class and consequently ensured the school’s literacy programs would (eventually) reach him.

By the end of the year I received a letter from home: “Thank you for helping ‘Bobby’ achieve a great year this year. He is more interested and engaged than I have ever seen him…”

My learning continues…
Recently, I spent time observing, learning and teaching at an Ottawa school whose enrolment quickly increased by approximately 50% as it welcomed students from Syria. I was sometimes able to watch teachers whose support and nurturing made a difference to their new students. Some of the students barely spoke English. I can only imagine what the Syrians may have experienced. But what I did see were the smiles on their faces as they developed trust and the skills needed to learn.

My interest in teaching elementary school is to develop strong, confident, happy people.. For me, that includes teaching traditional subjects, but more importantly, it includes developing confidence, empathy, independence, and a desire to succeed at something.

Without support dealing with life challenges, I am afraid young people may take ‘pooh throwing’ to much greater acts of violence.
Listen, support, learn…

#1136 Art Projects

It’s a summer of art – art is everywhere.
La Machine recently roared through Ottawa. Crowds are looking for the fun.
That’s big art. Public, government-funded, fun art. I like it.

La Machine - public performance art

La Machine – public performance art

Art looms in smaller and less obvious ways…
I recently finished the first part of a year long Forest School Practitioner’s Course. We explored many of the aspects of Forest School and were asked to build tree cookies, shelters and wooden mallets as part of our teacher training. I loved making a mallet from a small cedar log and others became immersed in the art of art of crafting wood into pieces of practical art.

Craft art

Craft art

“Oh, I’m not an artist…”
I don’t accept that (but I don’t tell them I don’t accept that.)
Instead I urge them to just look, see, click. Smartphones are wonderful creative tools that open people’s creative brains. Look, see, click…

I offered two art walks related to my recent Watershed Exhibitions. We explored two parts of the Chelsea Creek watershed and I challenged participants to recognize or create art in any way they could. The art started flowing – it made me smile. By the end one participant started talking about triangles in composition – made me smile again.

It’s nice to see people pushing their limits… I recently taught a film photography course to someone whowanted to try something new

Art is everywhere © Stephanie B.

Art is everywhere
© Stephanie B.

Dr. Ken Robinson suggests children are creative artists but slowly lose their fearless creativity.

Art is everywhere.
Notice it.
Try it…

#1133 Education Information through Daydreaming

My wife found me standing motionless on our back deck staring at the half built tree house in our back yard. “What’s going on?” she whispered. I was absorbed in the creative process of the design/development of the tree house.

While I have a loose plan in my brain, the design process consumes a lot of creative energy and time to develop the next stages of the project. The process is influenced by research, engineer friends and serendipitous time that allows ideas to percolate.

I’ve used meandering mind process throughout my life while creating:
• stock imagery for the photo stock market
building cameras and developing art projects
• developing lesson / unit plans for students
• exploring my passions and path in education.

treehouse design

Creative play = new ideas

Quiet time with freedom to wander in thought has allowed for many breakthroughs in history.

I often spend time roaming the forest on skis, bikes or on foot and magnificent ideas often present themselves. Sometimes internet meandering opens doors, too. Below are some recent web wanderings in education:

Democratic Learning
People learn well when they are interested in what they are learning. Often I see students in class acting out or staring at the ceiling because they aren’t remotely interested in the lesson on the board. Last week I taught a challenging class with many characters who did not want to be there. In gym I asked what they wanted to do: “Floor hockey, basketball, hula hoops…” So that’s what we did. It was the easiest class of the day – students were engaged (and learning) because they had input and interest.

The Power of Outdoor Learning
I teach, part time, for Chelsea Forest School. We’re outside almost all the time. Students are learning at their own pace in ideas that interest them. It’s magical. I’m sometimes surprised at the learning that takes place when the students lead the learning – my job is to build the curriculum around their interests… I recently asked a traditional kindergarten teacher if she saw any changes in her students after they visited Forest School once a week for six weeks – “Oh yes! Their creativity grows…”

Better Behaviour Management
I often see “undesireable” behavious in elementary students. Understanding and changing the behaviour effectively takes patience and big listening ears. A year or so ago a Grade 4 boy refused to go out for recess. With lots of listening and gentle questions the real reason for his misbehaviour became clear – he was feeling uncomfortable around an overbearing boy at recesses. Connecting with the school support team, parents and addressing the boys’ actions helped resolve the situation while helping everyone save face.

So much to learn!
Our tree house grows, slowly, as I daydream the design. My teaching practice (and photo projects) continue to flourish as my mind wanders…

#1131 Looks Like Learning

As I look back on the last 25 years I smile at some of my adventures: swimming with dolphins in the Pacific, planting a quarter million trees, teaching via skis, camera, classroom and the forest, and GoPro style commercial art years before GoPro existed…

With the adventures came many bumps in the road – both small pot holes and bigger sinkholes that took more extensive extrication.

But everywhere I’ve been (and continue to go) keeps bringing me to similar places – (reasonable) risk taking, progressive education and creativity.

Learning limitations

What Learning Looks Like – Risky Play

Some ideas and people that have always made me smile:

Alfie Kohn – “Kohn’s criticisms of competition and rewards have been widely discussed and debated, and he has been described in Time magazine as “perhaps the country’s most outspoken critic of education’s fixation on grades [and] test scores.”” (sited from Kohn’s site.)

Ken Robinson – Supporter of arts and progressive educational ideas. He has three relevant Ted Talks.

Learner Led Learning

What Learning Looks Like – Child Led Learning

Chelsea Forest SchoolChild Led Learning for National Capital area children.

Outward Bound – Exploring potential.

Learning takes many forms for many people – an idea that is often overlooked. I keep learning and realizing the potential in and beyond traditional classrooms. And so I’ll keep adventuring…

Multiple intelligences

What Learning Looks Like – Kinaesthetic Learning: learning by doing.

#1130 Forest School

Learner Led Learning

Forests – amazing classroom potential

It seems wherever we go in life we keep circling back to similar themes. I started teaching in the outdoors with Outward Bound in the mid 1990s and am returning to a taste of different outdoor teaching with Chelsea Forest School. The path to now has been an interesting one as my teaching philosophy continues to develop…

At school I excelled within the arts – physics and engineering were far from my core interests… until I needed them for an arts-based application.

About four years ago I wanted to buy a very large format camera to pursue a new part of my Watershed project. The negative from this camera is eight inches by ten inches. It’s a big camera. It wasn’t long before I realized the easiest way to acquire one (they’re expensive and scarce) was to build one myself. All of a sudden, I had a new passion for the physics of light applicable to designing and building a camera…. It made learning easy.

large format camera

Learning math and science through art…

This experience helped shape my philosophy of education.

During Teacher’s College I discovered  Forest School. I started learning about Forest School’s Learner Led Learning philosophy and fell in love with the idea. Why? At Forest School students are the driving force in their learning. Their teachers’ role is to build the curriculum around the students’ interests. Learners learn because they direct the learning… I wangled a way to visit a Forest School as part of my practicum and enjoyed what I saw.

Last year I had a great year. I led a traditional, but active, classroom. For me that meant as little sitting at desks as possible, more spirited debates, less worksheets, more hands-on learning. It wasn’t Forest School but I brought influences from many philosophies to the classroom.

Grade 4 classroom

Traditional Classroom Teaching

I saw the benefits of an active class. One of my students last year had had a tough year the year before. Initially he didn’t want to go to school. By the end of the year all that changed. I received a letter from his home that described the boy as thriving – his desire to skip school had vanished. Active learning has its benefits. Stories like this made me smile (more.)

This year I’m exploring my passions in teaching and enjoying some different contracts / opportunities…

I feel fortunate to be working a contract at Chelsea Forest School. The Learner Led Learning model is central to the teaching at the school. My job is to provide an environment that supports their interests and to build the curriculum around their passions. We spend almost all the time outside, in or near a forest.

child led learning

Chelsea Forest School learning

As a teacher it’s challenging – we need to support environments conducive to learning and be a catalyst as children discover and become engrossed in animal tracks, snow sculptures, bugs, imaginary space ships.

As a teacher it’s also lovely – watching students discovering, wandering, counting, building. I’ve never had to urge a Forest School student to get on with their work. Ever. Children always find something interesting and their work becomes play. And they learn!

… My 8×10 plywood camera still works well. It was designed and built with the zeal of true  intrigue – the essence of positive learning. That’s what learning looks like for me.

Home-made large format camera.

Home-made large format camera.

#1128 – Recent Photo Teaching!

I changed directions a few years ago – more toward traditional teaching but I still get requests to teach one-on-one or small photo classes.

This fall I taught my most popular classes to individuals who came knocking. I spent a half day with each person covering Creative Fundamentals and Natural Light Portraits.


Portrait photography course © Chris Payant.

Creative Fundamentals began inside a beautiful building and we ventured outside to explore some of central Ottawa’s visual appeal.

For Natural Light Portraits Chris practiced on the teacher preparing for an actor to come and “model” for her camera.

portrait photo class

Portraits © Chris Payant

I cannot thank you enough for the session yesterday.  I learned so much and I had fun! You certainly know how to challenge me just enough and you are a gifted teacher. I sent some sneak peaks to [the model] and she is thrilled!

Smiles all around!
A big thanks to everyone for the fun!